Lead Acid Battery Technology
Lead Acid battery technology is robust has been used globally and developed for over 150 years. It involves an electrochemical reaction between a paste of lead, lead dioxide, water and sulphuric acid that produces lead sulphate and heat. When this material is pressed into lead grid plates which are joined as opposite facing sets of cathode and anode plates, and submerged in dilute sulphuric acid, and a formation electric current (electron flow) is passed into the cathode plates, the soft lead sulphate is converted back to lead dioxide at the anode and lead at the cathode. When more dilute sulphuric acid is added, a battery is formed where each battery cell will show a voltage of 2.04 volts per cell.
Discharging this battery through a load will then create lead sulphate at the anode and the cathode and the sulphuric acid will turn to water. Sulphate and water are good insulators. Charging the depleted battery returns the produced sulphate chemicals back to original materials and so the battery capacity and performance becomes restored ready to be used again; normal charging techniques are always automated so batteries can never be fully recharged by this process. This failure causes progressive buildup of hard lead sulphate inside the battery which incrementally blocks battery capacity and battery performance up to the point of failure.