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A lead-acid battery is a storage battery in which the electrodes are grids of lead containing lead oxides that change in composition during charging and discharging, and the electrolyte is dilute sulphuric acid. The Lead Acid battery is made up of plates, lead, and lead oxide (various other elements are used to change density, hardness, porosity, etc.) with a 35% sulphuric acid and 65% water solution. This solution is called electrolyte which causes a chemical reaction that produce electrons. When you test a battery with a hydrometer you are measuring the amount of sulphuric acid in the electrolyte. If your reading is low, that means the chemistry that makes electrons is lacking. Sulfur is resting to the battery plates and when you recharge the battery the sulfur returns to the electrolyte.
Lead-acid batteries contain sulphuric acid and only trained and authorized personnel should handle them. When talking about lead-acid batteries, people usually call sulphuric acid “battery acid” or the “electrolyte”. An electrolyte is general term used to describe a non-metallic substance like acids such as sulphuric acid or salts that can conduct electricity when dissolved in water.

•Use extreme care to avoid spilling or splashing the sulphuric acid solution. It can destroy clothing and burn the eyes and skin.

*Always wear safety goggles and protective clothing (gloves and aprons). A face shield may also be necessary.

Batteries can be weight from about 14 to 27 kg, so practice safe lifting and carrying procedures to prevent back injuries. Use a battery carrier to lift a battery, or place hands at opposite corners.

What is the Meaning of CCA, CA, AH and RC

These are the standards that most battery companies use to rate the output and capacity of a battery.

Cold cranking amps (CCA) is a measurement of the number of amps a battery can deliver at -17 °C for 30 seconds and not drop below 7.2 volts. So a high CCA battery rating is good especially in cold weather.

Cranking amps (CA) measured at 0°C. This rating is also called Marine cranking amps (MCA). Hot cranking amps (HCA) is seldom used any longer but is measured at 27 ° C.

Reserve Capacity (RC) is a very important rating. This is the number of minutes a fully charged battery at 27 °C will discharge 25 amps until the battery drops below 10.5 volts.

An amp hour (AH) is a rating usually found on deep cycle batteries. If a battery is rated at 100 amp hours it should deliver 5 amps for 20 hours, 20 amps for 5 hours, etc.

How many types of lead-acid batteries?

Basically there are 2 types of batteries: starting (cranking) batteries and deep cycle (marine/golf cart) batteries. The starting battery (SLI starting lights ignition) is designed to deliver quick bursts of energy (such as starting engines) and have a greater plate count. The plates will also be thinner and have somewhat different material composition.

The deep cycle battery has less instant energy but greater long-term energy delivery. Deep cycle batteries have thicker plates and can survive a number of discharge cycles. Starting batteries should not be used for deep cycle applications. The so-called Dual Purpose Battery is only a compromise between the 2 types of batteries.

Wet Cell, Gel Cell, and Absorbed Glass Mat (AGM) are various versions of the lead acid battery. The wet cell comes in 2 styles: serviceable, and maintenance free. Both are filled with electrolyte. The Gel Cell and the AGM batteries are specialty batteries that typically cost twice as much as a premium wet cell. However Gel cell and AGM batteries do not tend to sulfate or degrade as easily or as easily as wet cell, there is little chance of a hydrogen gas explosion or corrosion when using these batteries. Gel Cell and some AGM batteries may require a special charging rate. Careful consideration should be given to the AGM battery technology for applications such as Marine, RV, Solar, Audio, Power Sports and Stand-By Power etc. If you don’t use or operate your equipment daily; this can lead premature battery failure; or depend on top-notch battery performance then spend the extra money. Gel Cell batteries still are being sold but the AGM batteries are replacing them in most applications. There is a little confusion about AGM batteries because different manufactures call them different names; some of the popular ones are sealed regulated valve, dry cell, non-spill able, and sealed lead acid batteries. In most cases AGM batteries will give greater life span and greater cycle life than a wet cell battery. It is very common for individuals to use the term GEL CELL when referring to sealed, maintenance free batteries. But be very careful when specifying a battery charger, many times we are told by customer they are requiring a charger for a Gel Cell battery and in fact the battery is not a Gel Cell.

AGM: The Absorbed Glass Matt construction allows the electrolyte to be suspended in close proximity with the plate’s active material. In theory, this enhances both the discharge and recharge efficiency. Actually, the AGM batteries are a variant of Sealed VRLA batteries. Popular usage high performance engine starting, power sports, deep cycle, solar and storage battery. The AGM batteries we sell are typically good deep cycle batteries and they deliver best life performance if recharged before the battery drops below the 50 percent discharge rate. If these AGM batteries are discharged to a rate of 100 percent the cycle life will be 300 plus cycles and this is true of most AGM batteries rated as deep cycle batteries.

GEL: The gel cell is similar to the AGM style because the electrolyte is suspended, but different because technically the AGM battery is still considered to be a wet cell. The electrolyte in a GEL cell has a silica additive that causes it to set up or stiffen. The recharge voltages on this type of cell are lower than the other styles of lead acid battery. This is probably the most sensitive cell in terms of adverse reactions to over-voltage charging. Gel Batteries are best used in very deep cycle application and may last a bit longer in hot weather applications. If the incorrect battery charger is used on a Gel Cell battery it will cause poor performance and premature battery failure.

When lead sulfate is left in the battery for a period of time, it crystallizes and becomes a hard sulfate that coats the surface of the electrode plates. This phenomenon is called sulphation. Because hard lead sulfate is a non-conductive material, when it coats the electrode plates, it causes a reduction in the area needed for the electro-chemical reactions. It also reduces the batteries’ active materials needed to maintain a high capacity. The causes of sulphation are numerous, for examples:

•Batteries sit too long between charges. As little as 24 hours in hot weather and several days in cooler weather.

•Battery is stored without some type of energy input.

•“Deep cycling” an engine starting battery. Remember these batteries can’t stand deep discharge.

•Undercharging of a battery, to charge a battery (let’s say) to 90% of capacity will allow sulphation of the battery using the 10% of battery chemistry not reactivated by the incomplete charging cycle.

•Heat of 38°C+, increases internal discharge. As temperatures increase so does internal discharge. A new fully charged battery left sitting 24 hours a day at 43°C for 30 days would most likely not start an engine.

•Low electrolyte level – battery plates exposed to air will immediately sulfate.

•Incorrect charging levels and settings. Most cheap battery chargers do more harm than good. Cold weather is also hard on the battery. The chemistry does not make the same amount of energy as a warm battery. A deeply discharged battery can freeze solid in subzero weather.

Exposure to heat is likely the biggest enemy. Heat kills batteries. The warmer the cells, the shorter the life is. The cells inside the pack are always a few degrees warmer than the temperature of the housing. When a car is not in use and the battery is naturally discharged, the battery sulfates. Not maintaining the proper water level in the battery can also make a battery fail. Average battery life has become shorter as energy requirements have increased. In fact 80% of all battery failure is related to sulphation build-up. This build up occurs when the sulfur molecules in the electrolyte (battery acid) become so deeply discharged that they begin to coat the battery’s lead plates. Before long the plates become so coated that the battery dies.
ABR’s refurbishment facility provides quality charging and discharging systems for the refurbishment process of new and used batteries. With the completed process you will find much less cost then you are currently paying for repeatedly purchase new batteries, you will be surprised by the quality and price difference that ABR offers.

There are 3 main types of people that can benefit from ABR’s refurbishment process.

1.The public and private users of batteries.

2.Companies that need and use batteries for their vehicles and equipment.

3.Companies that offer services dealing with vehicles, machinery and equipment, which could offer battery replacement as an additional service.

Our additive is a non-corrosive, non-flammable, water base liquid battery treatment formulated to extend the life and performance of any new or used lead acid battery. It is recommended for use in autos, boats, golf carts, motorcycles, solar, trucks, RV’s, electric forklift batteries, and any other lead acid battery. The additive improves battery chemistry. This stops shedding and prevents sulphation from occurring in new batteries, and breaks up existing sulphation in older batteries.